Much of the American war effort went to strategic bombers, which flattened the cities of Japan and Germany. Almost immediately, however, the world witnessed division into broad two camps during the Cold War; one side was led by the U. and the other by the Soviet Union, but this situation also led to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Despite two wars with European Powers—the War of 1812 and the 1898 Spanish–American War—American foreign policy was peaceful and marked by steady expansion of its foreign trade during the 19th century. bought Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867, and it annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898.
A policy of containment was adopted to limit Soviet expansion, and a series of proxy wars were fought with mixed results.
In 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved into separate nations, and the Cold War formally ended as the United States gave separate diplomatic recognition to the Russian Federation and other former Soviet states.
The President is also Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces, and as such has broad authority over the armed forces.
Both the Secretary of State and ambassadors are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. Constitution gives much of the foreign policy decision-making to the presidency, but the Senate has a role in ratifying treaties, and the Supreme Court interprets treaties when cases are presented to it.